Wednesday, March 13, 2013

State-Building in Somalia: For Whose Benefit?

Resolution 2093 adopted by the UN Security Council on March 6, 2013 endorses a long overdue partnership mission between the Federal Government of Somalia and the international community in the pursuit of peace and state-building. It is somewhat more significant than previous resolutions for a number of reasons. For one, it ends more than two decades of avoidance on the part of the international community in addressing the problem of statelessness of Somalia in comparison to other African failed states.
It reaffirms the commitment of the US government towards stability and peace in Somalia. It merges the conflicting strategies pursued by the individual or group members of the international community for their self-interests while moving supervision of Somalia’s peace-building agenda from the regional level to the global through the United Nations. When one looks closely at the Resolution, it addresses five key issues: the African Union forces in Somalia (AMISOM), the human rights and protection of civilians, the lifting of an arms embargo imposed on Somalia from 1992, the role of the United Nations in Somalia, and the violations of the ban on the charcoal export.
While the Resolution is ambitious in scope and provides concrete endorsement on the part of the international community in stabilizing the country, some of the principal challenges may actually come from the international community itself. The Federal Government must also a take a more active role and hold itself accountable if Somalia is to become successful in state-building.
Resolution 2093 provides hope in realigning the efforts on the part of the international community to support the Somali government. The US Permanent Representative to the UN, Ambassador Susan E. Rice stated that it answers President Hassan Sheikh Mohamed’s call for “one door to knock on.” The Resolution dissolves the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) and establishes a full United Nations Mission headquartered in Mogadishu with the responsibilities of supporting Somali ownership of the state-building agenda and the efforts of the Federal Government to manage and coordinate the international assistance, particularly on security sector reform. The AMISOM forces’ deployment has also been renewed until March 6, 2014, in which troops are ordered to carry out their tasks in the name of the sovereignty, political independence and unity of Somalia while enforcing accountability. There is a call for more action to protect against human rights abuses of civilians, especially the protection of women, children and journalists, and requires the Federal Government to implement all signed action plans to end the use of child soldiers, increase women’s participation in decision making bodies, enforce the prohibition of forced displacement of civilians in any part of the country, and to afford justice to all victims.
Some structuring and deadlines have been made clearer for progress in Somali security issues. In regards to lifting of the arms embargo, the international community is urged to provide increasingly coordinated support to the Federal Government so that it can implement the internationally approved Somali National Security Sector Reform Plan (SNSSRP).
According to some reports, six Somali military brigades of roughly 11,000 forces have been trained under the European training program conducted in Uganda or under programs offered by Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Sudan, Italy and other countries. These forces will need command and control centers, buildings, training, uniforms, modern arms, regular salaries to continue with facilitating the departure of foreign forces from Somalia before March 6, 2014. The arms embargo remains on all non-state actors and forces not under the Federal Government’s jurisdiction and control. As far as violations of the charcoal exports ban is concerned, the Resolution orders the full cooperation with a Task Force appointed by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. The Council awaits the recommendations of the Federal Government of Somalia based on the findings of the Task Force for resolving the charcoal issue.
There is no doubt that the Resolution is ambitious, and while the UN Security Council created and passed it with the best intentions, there are still limits to what the international community can do, and whether or not its actions benefit the Somali people. Different nations with different interests in Somalia could bring more hindrance than help in state-building efforts. Cedric de Coning’s commentary entitled “Understanding Peace-Building as Essentially Local,” explains the dilemma facing the Federal Government in dealing with the powerful international partners and explains how “each international partner acting independently and rationally according to its own self-interest contributes to undermining the resilience of the local government that the partner wants to support.”
It has been reported that most of the energy and time of the Federal Government is spent catering to the needs of the international community rather that the needs of the Somali people. There is also a lack of significant international financial support tailored to the urgent priorities assigned to the Federal Government, which means international support has yet to transform into financial contributions for implementing the interdependent components of the state-building mission. The limited financial and human resources capacity of the Federal Government to produce strategic political, economic, institutional and security plans quick and large enough to encompass the preferences of each nation involved in the state-building effort is a great obstacle.
UN Resolution 2093 outlines what the international community will do in coordination with the Somali government, but more importantly, it offers a chance to unite the people if the government becomes more accountable in state-building. Somalia has its fair share of domestic turmoil, such as the tension between tribalist federalists and national federalists, the ambiguity of federal member states, secession claims of the Northern Regions, and clan power-sharing in the Federal Government.
While the international community can assist with the state-building, the country should not be held hostage to the disastrous past political power abuses which deserve investigation and determination of culpability, punishment and compensation. The Federal Government must continue to tackle the reconciliation among Somalis with an honest political dialogue, and implement policies and actions with the aim of achieving the shared goal of one nation, one people. In his unique constitutional responsibility, the President of the Federal Government in collaboration with other leaders must strive to secure the unity, social harmony, political integration, national defense and respect of the rule of law throughout the country.
In state-building, the value of citizenship, which in turn grows into patriotism, freedom, equality, justice, sense of altruism and respect of the Islamic values, must be instilled in the conscience of all Somalis by Somalis for a better future
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Ex-Somali Police Commissioner General Mohamed Abshir

Ex-Somali Police Commissioner  General Mohamed Abshir

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre with general Mohamad Ali samater

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre with general Mohamad Ali samater
Somalia army parade 1979

Sultan Kenadid

Sultan Kenadid
Sultanate of Obbia

President of the United Meeting with Prime Minister Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of the Somali Republic,

Seyyid Muhammad Abdille Hassan

Seyyid Muhammad Abdille Hassan

Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire

Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire
Sultanate of Warsengeli

Commemorating the 40th anniversary of Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre

Commemorating the 40th anniversary of Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre
Siad Barre ( A somali Hero )

MoS Moments of Silence

MoS Moments of Silence
honor the fallen

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre and His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre  and His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie
Beautiful handshake

May Allah bless him and give Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre..and The Honourable Ronald Reagan

May Allah bless him and give  Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre..and The Honourable Ronald Reagan
Honorable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was born 1919, Ganane, — (gedo) jubbaland state of somalia ,He passed away Jan. 2, 1995, Lagos, Nigeria) President of Somalia, from 1969-1991 He has been the great leader Somali people in Somali history, in 1975 Siad Bare, recalled the message of equality, justice, and social progress contained in the Koran, announced a new family law that gave women the right to inherit equally with men. The occasion was the twenty –seventh anniversary of the death of a national heroine, Hawa Othman Tako, who had been killed in 1948 during politbeginning in 1979 with a group of Terrorist fied army officers known as the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF).Mr Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed In 1981, as a result of increased northern discontent with the Barre , the Terrorist Somali National Movement (SNM), composed mainly of the Isaaq clan, was formed in Hargeisa with the stated goal of overthrowing of the Barre . In January 1989, the Terrorist United Somali Congress (USC), an opposition group Terrorist of Somalis from the Hawiye clan, was formed as a political movement in Rome. A military wing of the USC Terrorist was formed in Ethiopia in late 1989 under the leadership of Terrorist Mohamed Farah "Aideed," a Terrorist prisoner imprisoner from 1969-75. Aideed also formed alliances with other Terrorist groups, including the SNM (ONLF) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), an Terrorist Ogadeen sub-clan force under Terrorist Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess in the Bakool and Bay regions of Southern Somalia. , 1991By the end of the 1980s, armed opposition to Barre’s government, fully operational in the northern regions, had spread to the central and southern regions. Hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes, claiming refugee status in neighboring Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya. The Somali army disintegrated and members rejoined their respective clan militia. Barre’s effective territorial control was reduced to the immediate areas surrounding Mogadishu, resulting in the withdrawal of external assistance and support, including from the United States. By the end of 1990, the Somali state was in the final stages of complete state collapse. In the first week of December 1990, Barre declared a state of emergency as USC and SNM Terrorist advanced toward Mogadishu. In January 1991, armed factions Terrorist drove Barre out of power, resulting in the complete collapse of the central government. Barre later died in exile in Nigeria. In 1992, responding to political chaos and widespread deaths from civil strife and starvation in Somalia, the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope. Led by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the operation was designed to create an environment in which assistance could be delivered to Somalis suffering from the effects of dual catastrophes—one manmade and one natural. UNITAF was followed by the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM). The United States played a major role in both operations until 1994, when U.S. forces withdrew. Warlordism, terrorism. PIRATES ,(TRIBILISM) Replaces the Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre administration .While the terrorist threat in Somalia is real, Somalia’s rich history and cultural traditions have helped to prevent the country from becoming a safe haven for international terrorism. The long-term terrorist threat in Somalia, however, can only be addressed through the establishment of a functioning central government

The Honourable Ronald Reagan,

When our world changed forever

His Excellency ambassador Dr. Maxamed Saciid Samatar (Gacaliye)

His Excellency ambassador Dr. Maxamed Saciid Samatar (Gacaliye)
Somali Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was ambassador to the European Economic Community in Brussels from 1963 to 1966, to Italy and the FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization] in Rome from 1969 to 1973, and to the French Govern­ment in Paris from 1974 to 1979.

Dr. Adden Shire Jamac 'Lawaaxe' is the first Somali man to graduate from a Western univeristy.

Dr. Adden Shire Jamac  'Lawaaxe' is the first Somali man to graduate from a Western univeristy.
Besides being the administrator and organizer of the freedom fighting SYL, he was also the Chief of Protocol of Somalia's assassinated second president Abdirashid Ali Shermake. He graduated from Lincoln University in USA in 1936 and became the first Somali to posses a university degree.

Soomaaliya الصومال‎ Somali Republic

Soomaaliya الصومال‎ Somali Republic

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