Friday, January 25, 2013

British Treaty with Somaliland Tribes – The Dhulbahata was part of the Grand Warsangeli Tribe

The British Government have signed protection treaties with six Somaliland tribes: Gadabursi, Eesa,Warsangeli, Habr Gerhajis, Habr Toljaala and Habr-Awal.
All the Articles in the Agreements and the Supplementary Agreements signed with the Somaliland tribes are similar except the Warsangali one.
The only treaty singed by Garad[or traditional leader] representing the all tribe is the Warsangali one. All
the other treaties are singed by elders that may represent their areas or their different sub-clans.

–The Warsangali treaty doesn’t contain the preamble that precedes every treaty which puts the independence
and maintenance of order in the British Government hands. The statement goes as “the maintenance of our
independence , the preservation of order …… ” . The Warsangali treaty is added an extra article [LOOK ARTICLE VI OF THE WARSANGALI TREATY] that none of the other treaties has which indicates that the Warsnagali will assist the British officers and followtheir advice for ” .. duties as my be assigned to them, and further act upon their advice in matters relating to the administration of justice, the development of the resources of the country, the interests of commerce, or in any other matter in relation to peace, order, and good government, and the
general progress of civilization. “
–No tribal area is referred as “COUNTRY” except the
Warsangali territory.
ARTICLES I, II and III are removed from the Warsangali Treaty. ARTICLE III in the Warsnagali Treaty is
similar to ARTICLE II in HABR GERHAJIS and Habr Toljaala Treaty but it is removed the statement ” All
vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade at all ports and places within …
The conclusion of every agreement, except the WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be
abided by the elders currently signing and ” their heirs and successors “
“The Dhulbahanta tribe associated themselves with Dervish, English Cavalry, King Osman, but mostly remained in the country of the Warsangeli Tribe, that is why Dhulbahante did not part of the negotiations.”

HERE ARE THE ARTICLES THAT ALL THE OTHER TRIBES HAVE EXCEPT THE WARSANGALI TREATY
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _
We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of order, and other
good and sufficient reasons. Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
ART. I. The Gababursi tribe do hereby declare thatthey are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save tothe British Government, any portion of the territorypresently inhabited by them, or being under their control.
ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall havefree permission to trade at all ports and places within the territories of the Gadabursi tribe
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitledto travel all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
………… .
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Jama Roblay, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures, marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the 11th day of December, 1884, corresponding with the 25th Safar. F. M. Hunter
(the marks of Elders named.) Agreement with the Gadabursi, ZAILA, Dec. 11, 1884 -
____________ _________ _________ _________
We, the undersigned Elders of the Eesa tribe, are Desirous of entering into an Agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our ndependence, the preservation of order, and other good and sufficient reasons.
Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
ART. I. The Eesa tribe do hereby declare that they are
pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or
otherwise give for occupation, save to the British
Government, any portion of the territory presently
inhabited by them, or being under their control.
ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
free permission to trade at all ports and places
within the territories of the Eesa tribe
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
the territories of the Eesa tribe shall enjoy perfect
safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel
all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the
Elders of the tribe
…….
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
honourable bond, Ali Geridone, ………and Major Frederick Mercer
Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the
former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
their signatures, marks, and seals, at Zaila, on the
31st day of December, 1884, corresponding with the
13th Rabu-al-Awal, 1302
F. M. Hunter

Agreement with the Eesa Somal, ZAILA, Dec. 31, 1884 –

____________ _________ _________ _________
We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Toljaala tribe,
are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
British Government for the maintenance of our
independence, the preservation of order, and other
good and sufficient reasons.
Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
ART. I. The Habr Toljaala tribe declare that they are
pledged and bound never to cede, sell, mortgage, or
otherwise give for occupation, save to the British
Government, any portion of the territory presently
inhabited by them, or being under their control.

ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
free permission to trade at all ports and places
within the territories of the Habr Toljaala, and the
tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
whether British or belonging to any other nation, that
may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to
protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such
vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at
Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship
and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
British Government.
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
the territories of the Habr Toljaala shall enjoy
perfect safety and protection, and shall be entitled
to travel all over the said limits under the
safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe

In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
honourable bond, Dirir Shaikh Don, ….[INSERT THE
NAMES OF THE ELDERS HERE]…..;and Major Frederick
Mercer Hunter, Assistant Political Resident, the
former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the
26th day of December, 1884, corresponding with the 9th
of Rabu-al-Awal, 1302
F. M. Hunter
(the marks of Elders named.)
Agreement with Habr Toljaala, Aden, December 26,1884
____________ _________ _________ _________
We, the undersigned Elders of the Habr Gerhajis tribe,
are desirous of entering into an Agreement with the
British Government for the maintenance of our
independence, the preservation of order, and other
good and sufficient reasons.
Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
ART. I. The Habr Gerhajis tribe do hereby declare that
they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,
mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to
the British Government, any portion of the territory
presently inhabited by them, or being under their
control.
ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
free permission to trade at all ports and places
within the territories of the Habr Gerhajis, and the
tribe is bound to render assistance to any vessel,
whether British or belonging to any other nation, that
may be wrecked on the above-mentioned shores, and to
protect the crew, the passengers, and cargo of such
vessels, giving speedy intimation to the Resident at
Aden of the circumstances, for which act of friendship
and good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
British Government.
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
the territories of the Habra Gerhajis tribe shall
enjoy perfect safety and protection, and shall be
entitled to travel all over the said limits under the
safe-conduct of the Elders of the tribe
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
honourable bond, Ahmed Ali, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer
Hunter, Assistant Political Resident at Aden, the
former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and
the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
their signatures, marks, and seals, at Aden, on the
13th day of December, 1885, corresponding with the
28th of Rabi-al-Awal, 1302
F. M. Hunter
(Signatures of Elders)
Agreement with Habr Gerhajis, Aden, January 13,1885
____________ _________ _________ _________
WHEREAS the garrisons of His Highness the Khedive are
about to be withdrawn from Berbera and Bulhar, and the
Somali Coast generally, we, the undersigned Elders of
the Habr-Awal tribe, are desirous of entering into an
Agreement with the British Government for the
maintenance of our independence, the preservation of
order, and other good and sufficient reasons.
Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follows:-
ART. I. The Habr-Awal tribe do hereby declare that
they are pledged and bound never to cede, sell,
mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to
the British Government, any portion of the territory
presently inhabited by them, or being under their
control.
ART. II. All vessels under the British flag shall have
free permission to trade at the ports of Berbera,
Bulhar, and other places in the territories of the
Habr-Awal tribe
ART. III. All British subjects residing in or visiting
the territories of the Habr-Awal shall enjoy perfect
safety and protection, and shall be entitled to travel
all over the said limits under the safe-conduct of the
Elders of the tribe
……
In token of the conclusion of this lawful and
honourable bond, Abdellah Liban, ……..and Major Frederick Mercer
Hunter, the officiating Political Resident of Aden,
the former for themselves, their heirs and successors,
and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do
each and all, in the presence of witnesses, affix
their signatures, marks, and seals, at Berbera, on the
21st day Ramdhan, 1301, corresponding with the 14th
July, 1884
F. M. Hunter, Major,
Officiating Political Resident, Aden.

Agreement with Habr-Awal, Berbera, July 14, 1884
____________ _________ _________ _________

The conclusion of every agreement, except the
WARSANGALI TREATY, indicates that the treaty will be
abided by the elders currently signing and ” their
heirs and successors “
____________ _________ _________ _________

TREATIES, &c., between the Warsangalis (British
Protection; Slave Trade; Wrecks: &c.). – January 27,
1886
THE British Government and the Elders of the
Warsangali tribe who have signed this Agreement being
desirous of maintaining and strengthening the
relations of peace and friendship existing between
them;
The British Government have named and appointed
Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, C.S.I., Political Agent
and Consul for the Somali Coast, to conclude a Treaty
for this purpose.
The said Major F. M. Hunter, C.S.I., Political
Agent and Consul for the Somali Coast, and the said
Elders of the Warsangali, have agreed upon and
concluded the following articles:-
ART. I. The British government, in compliance with the
wish of the undersigned Elders of the Warsangali,
undertakes to extend to them and to the territories
under their authorities and jurisdiction the gracious
favour and protection of Her Majesty the
Queen-Empress.
II. The said Elders of the Warsangali agree and
promise to refrain from entering into any
correspondence, Agreement, or Treaty with any foreign
nation or Power, except with the knowledge and
sanction of Her Majesty’s Government.
III. The Warsnagali are bound to render assistance to
any vessel, whether British or belonging to any other
nation, that may be wrecked on the shores under their
jurisdiction and control , and to protect the crew,
passengers, and cargo of such vessels, giving speedy
intimation to the Resident at Aden of the
circumstances; for which act of friendship and
good-will a suitable reward will be given by the
British Government.
IV. The Traffic in slaves throughout the territories
of the Warsangali shall cease for ever, and the
Commander of any of Her Majesty’s vessels, or any
other British officer duly authorized, shall have the
power of requiring the surrender of any slave, and of
supporting the demand by force of arms by land and
sea.
V. The British Government shall have the power to
appoint an Agent or Agents to reside in the
territories of the Warsangali, and every such Agent
shall be treated with respect and consideration, and
be entitled to have for this protection such guard as
the British Government deem sufficient.
VI. The Warsangali hereby engage to assist all British
officers in the execution of such duties as may be
assigned to them, and further to act upon their advice
in matters relating to the administration of justice,
the development of the resources of the country, the
interests of commerce, or in any other matter in
relation to peace , order, and good government, and
the general progress of civilization.
VII. This Treaty to come into operation from the 27th
day of January, 1886, on which date it was signed at
Bunder Gori by the Undermentioned.
F. M. Hunter
Witness:

J. H. Raintier, Commander, R. N.
Muhammad Mahmud Ali, Gerad of all the Warsangali.
Jama Mahmud, Gerad
Muhammad Ibrahim, ditto.
Omar Ahmed, ditto.
Mahmud Abdullah, ditto.
Yussuf Mahmud, ditto.
Of the Ayal Fatih sub-tribe-
Nur Abdullah.
Isa Adan.
Muhammad Ali Shirwa.
Abdy Nur
Of the Ogais Lebay sub-tribe–
Muhammad Abdy Nalaya.
Mahmud Sagullay.
Abdullah Sagullay.
Muhammad Abdullah
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Ex-Somali Police Commissioner General Mohamed Abshir

Ex-Somali Police Commissioner  General Mohamed Abshir

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre with general Mohamad Ali samater

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre with general Mohamad Ali samater
Somalia army parade 1979

Sultan Kenadid

Sultan Kenadid
Sultanate of Obbia

President of the United Meeting with Prime Minister Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of the Somali Republic,

Seyyid Muhammad Abdille Hassan

Seyyid Muhammad Abdille Hassan

Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire

Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire
Sultanate of Warsengeli

Commemorating the 40th anniversary of Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre

Commemorating the 40th anniversary of Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre
Siad Barre ( A somali Hero )

MoS Moments of Silence

MoS Moments of Silence
honor the fallen

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre and His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie

Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre  and His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie
Beautiful handshake

May Allah bless him and give Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre..and The Honourable Ronald Reagan

May Allah bless him and give  Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre..and The Honourable Ronald Reagan
Honorable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was born 1919, Ganane, — (gedo) jubbaland state of somalia ,He passed away Jan. 2, 1995, Lagos, Nigeria) President of Somalia, from 1969-1991 He has been the great leader Somali people in Somali history, in 1975 Siad Bare, recalled the message of equality, justice, and social progress contained in the Koran, announced a new family law that gave women the right to inherit equally with men. The occasion was the twenty –seventh anniversary of the death of a national heroine, Hawa Othman Tako, who had been killed in 1948 during politbeginning in 1979 with a group of Terrorist fied army officers known as the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF).Mr Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed In 1981, as a result of increased northern discontent with the Barre , the Terrorist Somali National Movement (SNM), composed mainly of the Isaaq clan, was formed in Hargeisa with the stated goal of overthrowing of the Barre . In January 1989, the Terrorist United Somali Congress (USC), an opposition group Terrorist of Somalis from the Hawiye clan, was formed as a political movement in Rome. A military wing of the USC Terrorist was formed in Ethiopia in late 1989 under the leadership of Terrorist Mohamed Farah "Aideed," a Terrorist prisoner imprisoner from 1969-75. Aideed also formed alliances with other Terrorist groups, including the SNM (ONLF) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), an Terrorist Ogadeen sub-clan force under Terrorist Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess in the Bakool and Bay regions of Southern Somalia. , 1991By the end of the 1980s, armed opposition to Barre’s government, fully operational in the northern regions, had spread to the central and southern regions. Hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes, claiming refugee status in neighboring Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya. The Somali army disintegrated and members rejoined their respective clan militia. Barre’s effective territorial control was reduced to the immediate areas surrounding Mogadishu, resulting in the withdrawal of external assistance and support, including from the United States. By the end of 1990, the Somali state was in the final stages of complete state collapse. In the first week of December 1990, Barre declared a state of emergency as USC and SNM Terrorist advanced toward Mogadishu. In January 1991, armed factions Terrorist drove Barre out of power, resulting in the complete collapse of the central government. Barre later died in exile in Nigeria. In 1992, responding to political chaos and widespread deaths from civil strife and starvation in Somalia, the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope. Led by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the operation was designed to create an environment in which assistance could be delivered to Somalis suffering from the effects of dual catastrophes—one manmade and one natural. UNITAF was followed by the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM). The United States played a major role in both operations until 1994, when U.S. forces withdrew. Warlordism, terrorism. PIRATES ,(TRIBILISM) Replaces the Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre administration .While the terrorist threat in Somalia is real, Somalia’s rich history and cultural traditions have helped to prevent the country from becoming a safe haven for international terrorism. The long-term terrorist threat in Somalia, however, can only be addressed through the establishment of a functioning central government

The Honourable Ronald Reagan,

When our world changed forever

His Excellency ambassador Dr. Maxamed Saciid Samatar (Gacaliye)

His Excellency ambassador Dr. Maxamed Saciid Samatar (Gacaliye)
Somali Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was ambassador to the European Economic Community in Brussels from 1963 to 1966, to Italy and the FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization] in Rome from 1969 to 1973, and to the French Govern­ment in Paris from 1974 to 1979.

Dr. Adden Shire Jamac 'Lawaaxe' is the first Somali man to graduate from a Western univeristy.

Dr. Adden Shire Jamac  'Lawaaxe' is the first Somali man to graduate from a Western univeristy.
Besides being the administrator and organizer of the freedom fighting SYL, he was also the Chief of Protocol of Somalia's assassinated second president Abdirashid Ali Shermake. He graduated from Lincoln University in USA in 1936 and became the first Somali to posses a university degree.

Soomaaliya الصومال‎ Somali Republic

Soomaaliya الصومال‎ Somali Republic
Somalia

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The threat is from violent extremists who are a small minority of the world's 1.3 billion Muslims, the threat is real. They distort Islam. They kill man, woman and child; Christian and Hindu, Jew and Muslim. They seek to create a repressive caliphate. To defeat this enemy, we must understand who we are fighting against, and what we are fighting for.

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