Saturday, March 1, 2014
THE RISE OF A JIHADI MOVEMENT IN A COUNTRY AT WAR
HARAKAT AL-SHABAAB AL MUJAHEDD IN SOMALIA
Senior Research Fellow at CNRS
SciencesPo Paris March 2011
This report is independent and does not represent the views of Her Majesty’s Government
Chapter I: Historical Background to the Development of al-Shabaab
1. A political history
1.1. Learning from failures? The radicalisation of the Somali Islamist movement
1.2. The experiments of the Islamic Courts
1.3. The emergence of al-Shabaab
2. Getting organized
2.1. The Supreme Council
2.2. The ministries or Maktabs
Chapter II: The confrontation with other Islamic Trends
1. The Salafi divide
2. Al-I’tisaam, Muqawama and the Salafi Trend
3. The merging with Hisbul Islaam
4. The collusion with Takfiir wa Hijra
5. An apolitical Jihad?
Chapter III: Citizens of Jihad. Al-Shabaab Recruitment
1. Joining al-Shabaab
1.1. Coerced recruitments
1.2. Economic incentives
1.3. Born again Jihadists
1.4. Recruitment of diaspora and East African radicalized Muslims
1.5. Challenging generational privileges
2. Short notes on the media policy
3. Recruitment among political “minorities”
Chapter IV: Al-Shabaab Military Tactics
1. The modernisation of war and the globalisation of suicide bombers
2. Organizing the coexistence of foreign and local fighters
3. Military misadventures
Chapter V: Funding an apparatus and ruling a population
1. Getting money for al-Shabaab
1.1. Collecting money outside the country
1.2. Getting funding from Somalia: maximisation of the protection economy
2. Building local administrations
2.1. Taking over a region
2.2. Building an authority
4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study intends to provide a fresh understanding of what the Somali Jihadi movement, al-
Shabaab, has become over the last 6 years in terms of social constituency, political project, links
to foreign Jihadi supporters and military power. Data are those collected by the authors and in
the public domain.
The main finding of this analysis is that al-Shabaab found ways to evolve and get lessons from
previous strategic mistakes. Near to be eradicated in January 2007, this group is today the
most powerful one in Somalia. The main instruments for this resilience have been: highly
debatable western and regional policies that allowed this movement that claims a global agenda
to appear as the best defender of the Somali nationalism; the illegitimacy of its contenders in
southern Somalia; and the ability to structure the organisation using economic and ideological
resources in a very innovative and efficient manner, thanks to foreign support.
Yet, as analysed hereafter, al-Shabaab is not deprived of strategic weaknesses. Its status
within the Somali Islamist trend is subject to bitter discussions and al-Shabaab over the last
year lost the support of very influential Salafi ‘ulemaa who before were sympathetic to its
regional agenda. Its military tactics are often unproductive and may prove self exhausting. The
fear it creates while governing populations also may push people to leave areas it controls.
Although the movement is polarized by its military agenda, it has to rule population and get
involved in many day-to-day problems that create the need for a more consistent administrative
framework, and raise ambitions among its commanders. While it is eager to address local issues
and restore law and order, its extremism is questioned by popular grievances, as illustrated by
the reactions to the current drought.
One concerning consequence of the Western misreading of the Somali crisis after 9/11 is the
attraction created by Somalia for foreign Jihadists. Although most are either Somalis with a
foreign passport or lost individuals (often recently converted or born again Muslims), two
patterns should be considered. The Somali diaspora is playing a role that has become increasingly
important both in funding that organisation or providing it with military and civilian cadres (even
for short periods). The “genuine” foreign fighters are increasingly East African citizens
(compared to 2007 and 2008) and this trend may likely produce Jihadi movements in Kenya,
Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa in the next two or three years...more
Designation of Al-Shabaab
The Foundation is dedicated to networking like-minded Somalis opposed to the terrorist insurgency that is plaguing our beloved homeland and informing the international public at large about what is really happening throughout the Horn of Africa region.
- ► 2016 (52)
- ► 2015 (68)
- Somalia Captures Suspect in '09 AU Base Bombing
- Q&A: Somalia PM's zero tolerance policy - Features...
- Somalia:Kenyan intelligence opts media propaganda ...
- Somalia seeks new ways of fighting al-Shabab
- Hey'adda African Development oo deeq gaar-siisey q...
- Somalia's battle against al-Shabab militants
- Global Guardian Adds Somalia To Service Area
- SOMALIA: African Union along with Somali forces ca...
- Somalia' Minister of Defense Outlines the Challeng...
- President elected for South west state of Somalia
- Bulo Burde residents return years after fleeing al...
- Maritime Security, Sea Power and Trade
- Hussein Hafow Ahmed Cheif/Elder Armale clan Promin...
- Somalia's Army SNA & amisom somalia heading toward...
- How local and state cops fit into counterterrorism...
- The unholy coalition of Christian Neocons and sece...
- Somali insurgents identify suicide bomber
- 60 years old Norwegian Suicide car bomb kills 2...
- The so called Protectors of islam in Somalia- Al S...
- Somalia: Senior Puntland forces commander killed i...
- Rewards for Justice - Reward Offers for Informatio...
- Somalia: Qur'an Teachers Arrested Over Indoctrinat...
- Somalia: Puntland Government welcomes US bounty on...
- AMISOM Expands Operations Against al-Shabab in Som...
- Kenyan Airstrike Kills 32 Al-Shabaab Militants in ...
- 19 Belgians in court on jihadi recruitment charges...
- Exclusive Picture : Somalia: Terror Group Media an...
- Al Shabaab leader urges Somalis to battle old enem...
- Somali, Amison troops to flush Al-Shabaab out of S...
- Are Corruption and Tribalism Dooming Somalia’s War...
- BREAKING: Al Shabaab confirm its spokesman Ali Dhe...
- United States officials and experts train Somali s...
- Prime Minister: UAE will help Somalia rebuild our ...
- Amin Amir, Salim Said Salim in music video mockery...
- Barkhad Abdi Dishes With Ryan Seacrest How Jay-Z H...
- Strong indications that Somalia’s powerful securit...
- Bomb explosion targets police officers in kismayu
- New Mogadishu Mayor rewarded with "extra authority...
- St. Paul P.D.’s 1st Somali Female Cop Graduates « ...
- Somalia: Mogadishu Gets new Mayor Amid Growing Ins...
- Hijab wearing men planting bombs so that they can ...
- THE RISE OF A JIHADI MOVEMENT IN A COUNTRY AT WAR
- ▼ March (42)
- ► 2013 (483)
- ► 2012 (782)
- ► 2011 (1124)
- ► 2010 (2301)
- ► 2009 (2843)
- ► 2008 (1071)
Al-Qaida in Somalia. ...
We Are Winning the War on Terrorism in Horn of Africa
The threat is from violent extremists who are a small minority of the world's 1.3 billion Muslims, the threat is real. They distort Islam. They kill man, woman and child; Christian and Hindu, Jew and Muslim. They seek to create a repressive caliphate. To defeat this enemy, we must understand who we are fighting against, and what we are fighting for.